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Basic Science Curriculum

  /  Basic Science Curriculum

FIRST SEMESTER

MD 100 – ANATOMICAL FOUNDATION OF MEDICINE

This course includes gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, and embryology. The anatomical component of this course explores the relationship between anatomical structure and function. By the way of lectures, dissections of cadavers, presentations, group seminars, and evaluation of radiographs, students will gain a basic knowledge of the clinical anatomy of adult human organ systems, including the brain and spinal cord. Computer-based tutorial programs and structured reviews are used to supplement the lectures and labs. Special emphasis is placed on the integration of anatomical and physiological material to assist the student in understanding common disease processes.
The embryological component integrates human development, allowing students to understand the relationship between embryonic development, in terms of human body structure & function, and the underlying genetic mechanisms of congenital abnormalities.

MD 101 – MEDICAL ETHICS

This course delivers a complete study of the legal and ethical issues confronted in the practice of medicine. Medical ethics will comprise of a series of seminars dedicated to the discussion of various topics such as disclosure, autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance, respect for human rights, euthanasia, informed consent, confidentiality, importance of communication, ethics committees, cultural concerns, truth-telling, conflicts of interest, referral, treatment of family members, sexual relationships, euthanasia, and death and dying. The students will discuss and debate ethical scenarios. Legal cases posing dilemmas that relate to each case will be presented, along with abstract material to facilitate conceptual and ethical analysis.

SECOND SEMESTER

MD 200 – MOLECULAR & CELLULAR FOUNDATION OF MEDICINE

This course includes biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, and immunology. Biochemistry component of this course will focus on biochemical pathways including: the Krebs cycle, glycol sis, gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, cholesterol synthesis, Ketogenesis, purine catabolism, and steroid synthesis. Macromolecules along with their functions and regulation, basic cell biology, epigenetic, biotechnology and principles of pharmacology. In addition, the chemistry and regulation of the reactions and processes involving hormones, receptors, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins, coenzymes, and minerals are also studied. Special emphasis is placed on the relationship between basic science and clinical medicine with emphasis on diagnostics, therapeutics and disease causation. This module will include didactic instruction, group problem –solving exercises and critical appraisal of the primary literature. The genetic part of this course covers the genetics of human populations and provides students with an understanding of the principles and concepts upon which current clinical genetic practice (diagnosis, treatment, and genetic counselling) is based
The microbiology component of this course reflects on microbial morphology, cultural characteristics, microbial genetics, chemical properties of microorganisms, and pathogenic properties of medically important species of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, metazoan, and viruses. Including but not limited to the basic principles of bacteriology, mycology, parasitological, virology, and immunology. And their role in the disease processes, in the diagnosis, and treatment of infectious disease.
The immunology part covers the basics of white blood cells, humoral products of the immune cells, molecular biology and genetics of antigen recognition and presentation, immunoglobulin production, and antigen-antibody reactions. The approach is to correlate these basic concepts with clinical manifestations of disease, the immunopathologic mechanisms of hypersensitivity, autoimmunity, transplantation, tumour immunology, reproduction, infectious diseases, immunodeficiency and pharmacotherapy.

THIRD SEMESTER

MD 300 – PHYSIOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF MEDICINE

This course is composed of human physiology, histology, and pharmacology. The histology component is a lecture and laboratory course that examines the microanatomy of cells, tissues and organs. Lectures illustrate the microstructure of major tissues and organs in relation to their function. Laboratory exercises use the light microscope to study these components and make use of slides and electron micrographs for review and discussion. This lab-oriented program presents the molecular biology and histology of normal cells, tissues and organ systems at various developmental functional stages; and their relevant pharmacology. Students learn how individual cell functions interact with one another and how such interactions are accomplished from the tissue levels to the organ levels. In addition, students learn how organ systems normally function. Major organ systems covered are: cardiovascular system, respiratory system, urinary system, reproductive system, endocrine system, gastrointestinal system, and the nervous system. Special emphasis is placed on the integration and relationships between physiology, histology, and pharmacology.

MD 303 – EPIDEMIOLOGY

This course teaches the fundamental principles of the distribution of diseases and their aetiologies in human populations. Students will acquire basic skills in epidemiologic principles, biostatistics and be able to apply these in clinical practice. Special emphasis will be focused on how to perform epidemiologic investigations, how to conduct critical analysis of medical literature and how to practice this information in clinical settings.

FOURTH SEMESTER

MD 400– INTEGRATION OF BASIC SCIENCES AND CLINICAL SCIENCES

This course integrates all basic science subjects: embryology, gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, immunology, histology, physiology, pharmacology, pathology, epidemiology, behavioural sciences, ethics; and the integrated content is delivered in the organ system manner by covering the Reproductive, Endocrine systems, Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Renal systems, Gastrointestinal system, Hematologic, Immune, Integumentary and Musculoskeletal systems as well as Multisystem disease. Additionally, students will learn the relationship between individual systems, pharmacology and clinical medicine with emphasis on diagnostics, therapeutics and disease causation.
In this course, students will be introduced to the relationship between basic science and clinical medicine with emphasis on diagnostics, therapeutics and disease causation. In addition, there will be integration of concepts learned in the first three semesters. Each of these interactive sessions will include didactic instruction, group problem –solving exercises and critical appraisal of the primary literature. Students will be introduced to concepts of critical thinking. At the end of this course, students will be able to identify and frame a clinical question based on therapy, diagnosis, prognosis or aetiology; develop a focused strategy to identify aetiology of the disease, diagnose, and construct a plan of management. An emphasis is placed on understanding of disease processes and clinical problem solving. The course is taught in the second year (semester 4 and 5) over a period of 8 months, alongside the MD 500 – CLINICAL SKILLS.

MED 404 – BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES

This course offers the basic principles of human behaviour in the light of biological, social, and cultural settings. Both normal and abnormal behaviour theories will be studied, including an overview of personality development, interviewing techniques, death education, human sexuality, and psycho physiological disorders including stress management and biofeedback. Additionally, various classes of psychotropic drugs and their mechanism, adverse effects, drug interactions, contraindications and indications will be covered.

FIFTH SEMESTER

MED 500 – CLINICAL SKILLS

Students will learn and practice the fundamentals of patient-physician communication skills, including initiating the session, building the relationship, exploration of problems, understanding the patient agenda and structuring the consultation, performing a physical exam, patient-centred history taking, including explaining and planning a treatment plan and communication skills in specific situations, including delivering bad news, cultural and social diversity, and demonstration of empathy. The format starts with chief complaints, other signs and symptoms, present medical history, past medical history, family history, social history and a complete review of systems. Students will also learn to perform a complete screening physical exam, and will continue to develop documentation skills with oral presentations and the patient note. Students will also learn clinical skills pertaining to specific situations including patients with mental illness, communicating with other caregivers, and providing advocacy and support. Physical exam skills will be reinforced by more comprehensive instruction in the physical exam skills that correspond to the organ systems studied, such as the integumentary, gastrointestinal, endocrine, musculoskeletal, reproductive, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and nervous system. Documentation skills will be further developed with focused patient visits, with additional instruction on medical order writing, diagnostic decision-making, prescription writing, complete history taking, and performing a systematic physical exam with oral presentations and the patient note. This course is thought in the second year (semester 4 and 5) alongside the MD 400 – INTEGRATION OF BASIC SCIENCES AND CLINICAL SCIENCES, over the period of 8 months.

MD 505 – APPLIED MEDICINE

Students will be introduced to concepts of critical thinking. At the end of this course, students will be able to identify and frame a clinical question based on therapy, diagnosis, prognosis or etiologist; develop a focused strategy to identify aetiology of the disease, diagnose, and construct a plan of management. An emphasis is placed on understanding of disease processes and clinical problem solving. The course is taught in the second year (semester 4 and 5) over a period of 8 months, alongside the MD 500 – CLINICAL SKILLS.

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